Etymology of Vistula name
The name was first recorded by Pomponius Mela in a.d. 40 and by Pliny in a.d. 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula (3.33), Pliny uses Vistla (4.81, 4.97, 4.100). The root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u?eis- ?to ooze, flow slowly? (cf. Sanskrit ?????? / ave?an ?they flowed?, Old Norse veisa ?slime?) and is found in many European rivernames (e.g. Weser, Viesinta).2 The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin (see Ursula).
In writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula. Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula (Book 22), note the lack the -t-. Jordanes (Getica 5 & 17) uses Viscla while the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith refers to it as the Wistla.3 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty KadÅ‚ubek Latinised the rivername as Vandalus, a form presumably influenced by Lithuanian vandu? ?water?, while Jan DÅ‚ugosz in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula ?white waters? (Alba aqua), perhaps referring to the White Little Vistula (BiaÅ‚a WiseÅ‚ka): ?a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua ... nominatur.?
A visit to the national science centers located in Cracow
Cracow is one of the student Polish cities, because very often organizes trips to this city student, whose aim is to explore the city, exploring the history of our country also in terms of scientific and visiting universities. Some foreign students staying in Poland on an exchange or on any internship program, they also try to get to know the city, to which they came. Often they visit the nationwide research centers located in city, such as the National Center for Science and the Branch of the Polish Academy of Sciences. In addition, they can learn the rules of research by Cracow's research units. Clearly, part of their visit is a tour of Cracow's universities.
A walk through Cracow
Many of the foreign trips aimed at visiting Polish historic sites and exploring the history of our country, goes to Cracow. Exploring the history of this country is also becoming a great opportunity to learn about Polish history. Therefore stroll around the city is organized with a guide who can talk interestingly about the different monuments and at the same time speak foreign languages and easily establishes contacts with people. In addition to being reflected in Cracow. Polish history, that there is also a variety of attractions, which can be used to organized trips to this city. One such attraction is just hanging out on the city market and find a variety of souvenirs, and other walks in the city parks.